TheorIes of LearnIng and InstructIon

Over centuries people have tried to find answers to the questions; What is learning? How do we learn? Epistemological Traditions and Experimental Approaches have come up to address these questions. Their answers differ based on their perspectives. For example; objectivism claimed that "Reality is external and independent", while objectivism revealed that "Reality is external and independent of the learner and comes to be known through sensory experience." Pragmatism, on the other hand, posited that "Reality exists but cannot be known directly; knowledge comes through signs and is always provisional", while interpretivism highlighted that "Reality and knowledge are constructed by the knower through rational thought."

Based on these traditions or approaches, researchers made observations and after much investigation, they constructed or verified propositions about what is learning is and how it happens. These propositions form the basis of theories. As much as we might like to think otherwise, however, "theories do not give us the truth of the matter. They simply provide a conceptual framework for making sense of the data that have been collected so far." And the actual fact of the matter is that "the process of theory building is recursive." Psychology, biology, computer science, and education are all at play when providing a conceptual framework for making sense of the data collected. Despite the differences among the learning theories, however, they do share some basic, definitional assumptions about learning, namely they all refer to learning as a persisting change in human performance or performance potential.

These traditions have some nuances regarding the source of knowledge. Empiricism for instance holds the belief "that that sensory experience is the only valid source of knowledge", while nativism favors the belief that "at least some knowledge is innate (i.e., present in  some form at birth)." Rationalism, on the other hand, holds the belief "that reason is the source of knowledge (i.e., the mind actively constructs knowledge). As well as the epistemological traditions, "there is a legacy of experimental approaches to learning upon which modern learning investigators have drawn." They'll be covered during the following days.


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Muhammed Özgür YAŞAR

Merhaba, ben Muhammed Özgür YAŞAR. Dil sınavlarına yönelik yayınlanmış 14 adet kitabım bulunmaktadır. YDS, YÖKDİL ve YDT, YKS-DİL'e yönelik Online Canlı ve Yüz Yüze dersler vermekteyim. Özel ders için iletişim: [email protected] 

Dil sınavlarında uzmanı olduğum alanlar: YDS, YÖKDİL, YKS-DİL, Tıpdil, Gramer, Çeviri Teknikleri, Vocabulary ve Writing.

Aynı zamanda Osmangazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi İngilizce Öğretmenliği Bölümü'nde Öğretim görevlisi olarak çalışmaktayım. 2000 yılında Çukurova Üniversitesi İngilizce Öğretmenliği Bölümü'nden mezun oldum. Akademik olarak; ELT, MOOC, Flipped Learning, Applied Linguistics ve Language and Technology konularına ilgi duymaktayım.

Akademik çalışmalarımın olduğu alanlar: MOOCs, LMOOCs, Flipped Learning, Language and Technology, SLA, EFL, ELT

Yüz yüze Eğitimlerim: Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi ESOGÜSEM - Tel: 0222 239 9628 / 0222 239 3750 Dahili: 5071/5072 web:

Not: Özel dersler ESOGÜSEM işbirliğiyle yapılmaktadır.